Staying healthy and managing diabetes can be a challenge. But with the right understanding, diet, exercise and medical support, living with diabetes doesn't have to be overwhelming. This guide provides you with an overview of the basics of diabetes and offers actionable steps for taking control of your health. Learn about the different types of diabetes, how to identify symptoms, treatments and resources available to help you make informed decisions about your care. Whether you’re newly diagnosed or looking for ways to manage your current condition, this guide provides a comprehensive view of diabetes that empowers you to take charge of your health.
What is Diabetes?
The term diabetes mellitus refers to a disease of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism that leads to high blood glucose. It is associated with impairment in insulin secretion and its resistance to tissues. There are different types of diabetes:
Type 1 - Is a less common type ( 5 to 10 percent) and is characterized by autoimmune destruction of cells of your pancreas which leads to no insulin production. Usually presented at a very early age compared to Type 2 Diabetes.
Type 2 - Most common type ( >90 percent) and is characterized by high blood glucose due to loss of insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance in the tissues. Most of the patients are asymptomatic on initial presentation, with incidental findings of hyperglycemia. The most common symptoms include increased urination, thirst, blurred vision, and weight loss.
There are three different ways of diagnosing diabetes:
- Fasting blood glucose greater than or equal to 126mg/dl. Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least eight hours.
- Two-hour plasma glucose values greater than or equal to 200mg/dl during a 75g oral glucose tolerance test. In this test, you are given 75g of oral glucose and your blood sugar is checked after 2 hours. Any value of 200 or above is concerned abnormal.
- Hb A1C value greater than or equal to 6.5 percent
Management of diabetes mainly consists of managing blood sugars and preventing diabetes relating complications. Lifestyle interventions such as dietary modification, exercise, and weight reduction are big components of managing diabetes. There are two main types of pharmacotherapy: oral medications and insulin. Consult your primary care physician to figure out which regimen is best for you.
Patients with diabetes require ongoing evaluation for diabetes-related complications. Your primary care physician will perform a history and physical examination two to four times a year to obtain information on nutrition, and physical activity and assess your risks of complications related to diabetes. Diabetes can essentially affect any and all organs. A yearly dilated eye examination is recommended to check for any evidence of retinopathy. A comprehensive yearly foot examination to check for neuropathy and vascular disease is performed. Laboratory tests such as lipid panel, basic metabolic panel, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio are performed annually to monitor diabetes-related complications.
Get help from Brentwood Primary Care and Dr. Shreya Khatri
Brentwood Primary Care's board-certified primary care physician, Dr. Shreya Khatri is pleased to provide her patients with high-quality care. A personalized diet plan which is tailored to your medical needs, ensuring your health is well cared for. If you have any questions or would like to schedule a consultation, submit a consultation request or call our clinic at 925-471-4223 today!